Salads for the Summer Solstice

Lettuce Leaves

“Whenever I chop fresh herbs, I think of you.” That’s what my friend Ginny told me, and it is one of the most wonderful ways to be remembered that I can think of.

There’s a lot of chopping in these salads, and lots of fresh herb flavor. I made them to celebrate the beginning of summer and the end-of-spring harvest of young carrots, snap peas, spring onions, early cucumbers, fresh herbs, and abundant salad greens.

Wild Onion

My garden is a wild abundance of flowers and herbs, rubbing shoulders (if not pushing and shoving) among the vegetables. There are volunteers and galloping weeds looking for available space. It’s a jungle…and a salad maker’s paradise. I wander the pathways with a basket, picking this and that–whatever looks colorful and tasty. Then I invited friends for lunch.

Calendula

My friends and I ate salads and toasted the summer solstice. Then we jumped into summer by plunging in an icy- cold, rushing mountain stream.

Carrots in Harissa

A Middle Eastern inspired carrot salad with North African chile paste…. tone it down for a salad, spice it up for a condiment.

Ingredients: 8 to 10 young carrots (about 1 1/2 lbs), 2 Tbs olive or sunflower oil, spring onions or sweet onion (about 1 1/2 cups small dice), 1/2 tsp crushed cumin seed, 1/2 tsp crushed caraway seed, 1 tsp coarsely ground coriander seed, 3 Tbs fresh lemon juice, pinch sugar, 1 to 2 Tbs harissa (how hot is your harissa?), 1/2 cup finely chopped parsley, 1/2 cup chopped cilantro, 1/4 cup chopped chives, 2 to 3 cups baby spinach, arugula, or kale for serving

Red Onions

Peel the carrots and cut them into 1 1/2 to 2-inch long, thin matchsticks (or round slices). Blanch in salted boiling water for 1 minute (or steam about 5). Chill the carrots in ice water to stop the cooking. Drain and set aside.

Heat the oil in a skillet over medium heat. Stir in the spices and cook 30 to 60 seconds. Add the onion and a pinch of salt and sauté 3 to 5 minutes to soften. Add the harissa and stir to combine. Transfer the onion-spice mixture to a large bowl and add the carrots, stirring to coat well. Stir in the chopped fresh herbs, lemon juice, and sugar. Taste and adjust the flavors, adding salt, lemon juice or more harissa as needed.

Make a bed of greens (spinach, endive, arugula, kale…) on a platter or shallow bowl and arrange the carrot salad on top.

*Excellent Spicy Carrot Tapenade

Mix extra carrot salad with green olives, chopped pecans, capers, and garlic.

*Harissa

I make harissa in the fall with whatever hot chiles I harvest from the garden. This year it was a combination of red jalapenos, aji dulce, and a type of cayenne called Red Fire. Naomi smoked the peppers, and I blended them with spices and garlic to make the paste. Harissa can be made with dried chiles any time of year. Choose the type and quantity of chiles according to your heat tolerance.

Ingredients: 1 to 2 oz dried red chiles (ancho, Anaheim, New Mexico Red, pasilla, cayenne, guajillo, etc), 1 roasted and peeled red bell pepper, 1 tsp smoked paprika, 1/2 tsp cumin seed, 1/2 tsp caraway seed, 1 tsp coriander seed, 2 to 4 garlic cloves, 1/2 tsp sea salt, 1 tsp smoked paprika, 2 tsp red wine vinegar or 1 Tbs fresh lemon juice, 2 Tbs olive oil

Toast the dried chiles briefly on a dry skillet over medium heat. Remove the seeds and stems and put the chiles in a bowl. Cover with hot water and let soak 1/2 hour, until soft.

Toast the spices 30 to 60 seconds on the hot skillet, stirring constantly. Transfer to a mortar and grind to a powder. Add the garlic and salt and pound to make a paste. Add the paprika, vinegar or lemon, and oil. Stir to combine, then scrape the mixture into a blender, along with the soaked hot chiles and the roasted red pepper. Process to a smooth paste. Store in the refrigerator of freezer.

Sugar Snap Pea Tabbouleh

This is an herb salad made with a little bulgur wheat and snap peas replacing the usual tomatoes. It is sharp and refreshing with lemon juice, and best eaten soon after it is made. If you don’t have fine grain bulgur wheat, use regular bulgur wheat and prepare it with boiling water. Let it soak 10 to 15 minutes, then drain in a large sieve. The salad is also good made with cooked freekah or quinoa.

Ingredients: 1/4 cup fine grain bulgur wheat, 1/4 cup plus 1 Tbs warm water, 12 oz sugar snap peas (strings removed), 3 small cucumbers, 4 to 5 cups finely chopped flat-leaf parsley, 1/2 cup finely chopped fresh mint leaves, 3 or 4 thinly sliced scallions (white and tender green parts), 1 finely diced seeded jalapeno, 1/2 tsp salt, 1/4 tsp ground cumin, 1/4 tsp ground allspice, 1/8 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp black pepper, 1 to 2 tsp pomegranate molasses and Romaine lettuce leaves for serving

Fresh Garden Herbs

Dressing: Using a mortar and pestle, mash1 garlic clove with a pinch coarse sea salt to make a paste. Add 1/4 cup fresh lemon juice, a pinch sugar, and 1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil. Whisk to combine.

Pour water over bulgur in a small bowl or saucepan. Leave 1/2 hour to soften.

Bring a pot of salted water to a boil and blanch snap peas 30 seconds. Drain and cool in ice water. Drain, chop in 1/2-inch pieces, and set aside in a colander.

To chop parsley, hold a handful of parsley sprigs together tightly with one hand and use a sharp chef knife to slice the tender stems and leaves into very thin shreds. Cut cleanly to avoid bruising the leaves. Discard tough stem ends. Thinly slice mint leaves only–no stems.

In a large bowl, mix together the softened bulgur, chopped peas, diced cucumber, chopped parsley and mint, scallions, and jalapeno. Sprinkle with salt and spices and toss to combine. Pour on the dressing, toss well, and taste. Adjust the seasoning. Drizzle pomegranate molasses on top. Serve with Romaine lettuce leaves for scooping.

*Homemade pomegranate molasses: Boil 1 quart pomegranate juice (add 1/4 cup sugar if unsweetened, or 1/4 cup fresh lemon juice if sweetened) until reduced to syrup. That’s it. You can use cranberry or cherry juice for delicious variations.

Mango-Avocado and Black Bean Salad

It appears to be mango season in Western North Carolina, so I have been making mango-avocado salsa recently and love the combination. I added cucumbers and black beans for a salad.

Ingredients: 1 can or 1 1/2 cups cooked black beans, 1 large firm-ripe mango, 1 firm-ripe avocado, 3 small thin-skinned cucumbers, 1 cup diced red onion, 2 seeded and diced jalapeno chiles, 1/2 tsp toasted and crushed cumin seed, 2 Tbs thinly sliced mint leaves, 1 cup chopped cilantro leaves and stems, 1/4 cup fresh lime juice, salt

Drain and rinse the black beans, set aside in a sieve. Peel and dice the mango and avocado. Dice the cucumbers. Put all the ingredients in a salad bowl and toss gently to combine. Add the lime juice, and season with salt.

Dill Flowers

 

Garden Herbs

Beef Ragu in the style of the Italian Grandmothers

“We are farmers, but we have something really beautiful.” ~Carluccia

onions

Carluccia is a farmwoman Jessica Theroux spent time with in Calabria during the year she gathered recipes for her book, “Cooking with Italian Grandmothers.” Carluccia’s deep connection to her animals and fields and to the vegetables she raised taught Jessica to pay attention to each little thing her cooking…to look and listen carefully to her ingredients, and to the people she fed.

tomatos

Our neighbor Rodney is a farmer who raises beautiful black Dexter cattle. His herd lives in our pasture and eats grass and herbs and, very occasionally, my garden. The cows are sweet and gentle and the perfect size for a mountain farm. When Rodney gave me a chuck roast from one of his steers, I wanted to honor the animal by cooking in the attentive style of the Italian Grandmothers.

There are two approaches to this ragu, depending on your schedule and/or temperament. You can mince the vegetables for the sofritto and slowly sauté them until they melt away into an “invisible layer of deliciousness”, a la Samin Nosrot, who says,” cooking is about seeking the deepest, farthest, richest flavors in everything…about extracting the the absolute most out of every ingredient…” Or, you can go the “just whack ’em up route” and create an equally delicious homey stew with hunks of flavorful vegetables.

parsley

Ingredients: 2 1/2 to 3 lbs grass-fed chuck roast or sirloin tip roast, salt and pepper, olive oil, 3 to 4 cups finely chopped or thickly sliced onions, 1 cup finely diced or thickly sliced celery, 1 1/2 cups finely diced or thickly sliced carrots, 6 to 8 thinly sliced garlic cloves, 1 minced fresh or dried hot chile pepper, 2 bay leaves, 6 sprigs fresh thyme, 10 crushed juniper berries, 1 tsp crushed fennel seeds, 2 cups canned tomatoes with juice (or 2 Tbs tomato paste and 3/4 cup water), 2 1/2 cups hearty red wine, 2 to 3 cups homemade or canned beef or chicken broth, 1/2 cup chopped fresh parsley leaves

Me with some parsley.Cut the meat into 1 1/2 to 2-inch stew-sized pieces. Season it with salt and freshly ground black pepper. Heat 2 Tbs oil in a heavy-bottomed pot over medium-high heat and brown the meet on all sides, working in batches if you need to. Add more oil if needed and sear each batch about 10 minutes. Remove the meat from the pot and set aside.

carrots

Reduce the heat to medium-low and sauté the onion with a pinch of salt until soft, 7 to 10 minutes. Raise the heat a bit and stir in the carrots and celery. Add oil if needed. Cook, stirring occasionally, 5 to 7 minutes longer. Stir in the garlic and red chile and cook 1 minute. Add the bay leaves, thyme, juniper berries, fennel seed, and wine. Bring to a simmer and cook 3 to 4 minute. Add the meat and juices back into the pot. Add the tomatoes, crushing them with your hands. Add broth and bring to a slow boil.

Stovetop Method: Reduce the heat to low and leave the lid slightly ajar. Maintain a gentle simmer, stir occasionally, and add liquid as needed. The liquid should reduce to a thick sauce by the time the meat is fork-tender, 1 1/2 to 2 hours.

Oven Method: Heat the oven to 325 degrees. Cover the pot and place it in the oven. Cook the ragu until the meat is very tender, 2 to 2 1/2 hours. If the ragu is more liquid that you want when the meat is done, strain the liquid through a colander into a saucepan. Skim off any fat and boil to reduce and concentrate the flavors. Return the broth to the ragu.

Taste the ragu and season with salt and black pepper to taste. Sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve with polenta, pasta, couscous, or bread.

Looking for Spring–a Green Lunch for Happiness

fern

I have never been so ready to see spring come after this bitter winter. I planted early seeds in the garden, and when they didn’t come up fast enough I planted more…and more. Now the garden beds are a jumble of tiny seedlings. I promise them I will sort it all out.

Meanwhile I am foraging for the first intrepid plants of the season–wild and cultivated: tiny dark green spikes of chives, crinkled mint leaves, shocking-green sorrel, fragrant chervil, lacy arugula… tender nettles, ramps, and cat-briar leaves from the woods…and abundant watercress from the branch. High above us on the ridge tops the trees are barely leafing out, but spring is happening from the ground up. The forest floor is covered with wildflowers, and lively flavors from deep green leaves are there to be gathered if you know where to look.

Ramps

Looking is half the fun. You have to walk carefully in the spring woods because there are so many little plants uncurling from their winter’s sleep. Wild iris and geranium, trillium, Solomon’s Seal, blood root, phlox, rue anemone, trout lily, bellwort…all mixed in with red-tinged poison ivy leaves, stately cohosh, fairy kingdoms of moss, and tangles of fern fronds. I even found some showy orchis and the newly unfolded leaves of ginseng.

Two Shades of Orange Salad

beets

Golden beets (found in miraculously good shape after hibernating in the vegetable bin of the refrigerator all winter!) and oranges provide the two shades of orange for this salad–a riff on a Moroccan ” two shades of red salad” made with beets and tomatoes, found in the cookbook Flatbreads and Flavors by Alford and Duguid. The salad also borrows from the orange and beet salsa from Jerusalem, the cookbook.

Ingredients: 2 medium golden beets, 1 orange, 1/2 cup finely chopped red onion, 1/4 cup chopped kalamata olives, 1/4 cup chopped parsley, 1/4 cup chopped cilantro, 1/4 cup chopped chives, 2 Tbs chopped fresh mint leaves, 3/4 tsp coriander seed, 3/4 tsp cumin seed, 1/2 tsp smoked paprika, 1/2 tsp red chile flakes, 1 garlic clove, 2 to 3 Tbs fresh lemon juice, 2 Tbs extra virgin olive oil or walnut oil, pinch of sugar, salt and freshly ground black pepper, 2 cups watercress or arugula leaves, 1/4 cup toasted walnuts

Place the beets in a saucepan, cover with plenty of water, and bring to a boil. Partially cover and cook at a low boil for 25 to 30 minutes, or until the beets are easily pierced with a sharp knife. Drain, cool, and peel before cutting into 1/2-inch dice.

Peel the orange and remove all the pith and seeds. Slice the orange about 1/4-inch thick. Separate the slices into segments, removing tough connective membranes. Add the orange pieces and their juice to the diced beets, along with the onion, chopped olives, and herbs.

Toast and grind the coriander and cumin seeds in a mortar and pestle. Add the paprika and chile. Add the peeled garlic clove and pound to a paste with 1/4 tsp salt. Whisk in the lemon juice and oil. Pour the dressing over the beet mixture. Toss gently and season with salt and pepper. Arrange the salad on top of a shallow bowl of watercress or arugula leaves and sprinkle with walnuts.

Chickpea Soup with Watercress and Wild Greens

Nettles

Mild-flavored chickpeas combine well with deep green-flavors of a wide variety of greens including spinach, chard, and kale, as well as foraged greens like nettles, lambs quarters, and coneflower. Watercress adds a welcome bite, and the North African spice blend ras el hanout adds spicy fragrance.

Ingredients: 2 1/2 Tbs olive oil, 1 thinly sliced large onion, 1 Tbs finely chopped garlic, 2 Tbs finely chopped ginger, 2 cups cooked chickpeas, 2 cups vegetable broth or chickpea cooking liquid, 4 cups chopped greens (about 5 oz), 6 cups watercress leaves (6 to 7 oz), 2 tsp ras el hanout, 1/4 tsp ground cinnamon, salt, lemon wedges

Warm the olive oil with the onion in a Dutch oven or other soup pot over medium heat. Cook, stirring occasionally, until the onion is completely soft, 8 to 10 minutes. Add the ginger and garlic and cook about 1 minute. Stir in the ras el hanout, cinnamon, chickpeas, and broth and bring to a low boil. Add the chopped greens and watercress and simmer until the leaves are wilted and tender, 1 to 2 minutes.

Use a blender or food processor to blend the soup to a smooth puree. Return to the pot to reheat. Season with salt to taste. Serve with lemon wedges and thick yogurt.

Fava Bean Pesto with Sorrel

Sorrel

This is a green salsa/spread for spring…a great topping for bruschetta or crackers. I added frozen edamame from last year’s garden for brighter green color.

Ingredients: 1 cup peeled fresh fava beans, 1/2 cup shelled edamame, 1 large garlic clove, 1/4 tsp kosher or sea salt, 2 Tbs chopped fresh mint leaves, 1/4 cup chopped sorrel leaves, 1 Tbs fresh lemon juice, 2 Tbs extra virgin olive oil, 2 Tbs Pecorino Romano, freshly ground black pepper

Cook shelled fava beans in salted boiling water until tender, 1 to 2 minutes. Drain and cool in cold water. Drain again and slip off the outer skin.

Chop the garlic and put it in a mortar with the salt. Mash with the pestle to make a paste. Add the rest of the ingredients gradually and use the mortar and pestle or a food processor to make a chunky, spreadable pesto.

Spring Green Kuku

Dandelion

A kuku is the Iranian version of a frittata, and my Silk Road Cooking book says that a fresh herb kuku is eaten on the spring equinox to symbolize rebirth, fertility and happiness.

Arugula

Ingredients: 6 free-range eggs, 2 Tbs cream, 1 Tbs flour, 1/2 tsp baking powder, 1/2 tsp salt, 1/2 tsp freshly ground black pepper, 3 Tbs olive oil, 1 cup chopped spring onions (including green stems), 1 cup thinly sliced ramp leaves (chives or garlic chives), 3 cups chopped nettle leaves (baby kale or spinach), 1/4 cup finely chopped parsley, 1/4 cup finely chopped chervil (fennel or dill), 2 Tbs chopped fresh mint, 2 Tbs currants or dried cranberries

Preheat the oven to 250 degrees. In a large bowl, whisk together the eggs, cream, flour, baking powder, salt and pepper. Set aside.

Heat 2 Tbs olive oil in a 10-inch oven-proof skillet. Add the onions to the skillet and cook 4 to 5 minutes. Add the ramp leaves or chives and cook 1 minute. Add the greens and cook until just wilted. Stir in the fresh herbs and currants.

Stir the onion-herb mixture into the beaten eggs. Clean the skillet and return it to the heat and add the remaining 1 Tbs olive oil. When hot, pour in the egg mixture and transfer the pan to the oven. Cover and cook 15 minutes. Remove the cover and continue to cook about 5 more minutes, until the eggs are just set.

Cut the kuku in thin slices and eat with bruschetta or flatbread, with a dollop of yogurt sauce.

Yogurt Sauce

Ingredients: 1 cup thick yogurt. 1 finely chopped garlic clove, 1/4 tsp salt, 1/4 tsp freshly ground pepper, 2 tsp fresh lemon juice, 2 tsp sumac powder, 1/2 tsp dried mint, 2 Tbs finely sliced chives

Put the garlic and salt in a mortar and mash the garlic to a paste. Add the rest of the ingredients and stir to combine.

Crepe au Ble Noir

French crepes

Crepe au Ble Noir

I read about buckwheat crepes, or galettes au sarrasin, before we went to France. I knew to search them out because they were so lovingly described by David Lebovitz in his book, My Paris Kitchen. First he explained the confusion of names: A crepe is made with white flour, but when made with buckwheat flour it is called galette au sarrasin in French (unless, of course, it is called a crepe au ble noir, or crepe of black flour). While a white-flour crepe may be served with either sweet or savory fillings, a galette au sarrasin is generally reserved for savory fare.

Although there are many corner creperies in Paris enticing diners with the smell of crepes frying in butter on a hot griddle, it was on a chilly morning at the Bastille out-door market that I was totally smitten by crepe, or more accurately, galette lust. Two young men of North African descent stood behind a long counter expertly flipping and folding crepes fried to order on giant griddles. They each had two griddles and a vat of crepe batter–one of white flour and one of the coveted ble noir– that they ladled onto the griddle, swirled to a perfect circle with a flat wooden rake, flipped onto a second griddle, and filled with various savory fillings (caramelized onions, sautéed mushrooms, grated cheese, ham, chorizo, sausage, and chopped tomato) chosen by the customer. The folded galette fried to fragrant perfection in a generous brushing of butter. Each sizzling galette was doused with black pepper and chopped chives before being wrapped in paper and delivered to an outstretched hand.

Making Crepes

Crepes and galettes are perfect street food, and they’re also perfect party food and lend themselves to ensemble cooking. Two people can work the griddles, and guests can decide which filling combinations to wrap up. The finished galette is sliced into rounds like sushi and passed around the room to sample with drinks.

Galette au Sarrasin

Crepe with Filling

Lebovitz has this advice on making crepes, or galettes: “A good crepe, or galette, should be thin and lacy. The batter is best made a few hours before you plan to use it and should have the consistency of heavy cream. As it hits the griddle, it should be thick enough to coat the bottom, but not too thick, or the galette will be rubbery. The griddle must be hot enough so that almost immediately lots of little holes will form on the surface of the galette. That’s the moment of satisfaction, when you know that you’ve got it just right, and then it’s a pleasure to just keep going.” He goes on to say that the first one or two are usually duds, until the griddle reaches just the right heat…so don’t despair. Official galette batter is made with buckwheat flour, salt, and water. Lebovitz adds eggs to make the batter more manageable for novices.

Batter ingredients for 12 galettes: 1 1/2 cups buckwheat flour, 1/2 tsp sea salt or kosher salt, 2 1/4 cups water (more if needed). Lebovitz adds 2 eggs; I sometimes add 1/2 cup sourdough starter

Put the buckwheat flour, water and salt in a bowl. Whisk well to combine, cover, and refrigerate a few hours to overnight. When ready to cook, whisk the batter and add more water if needed so that the consistency is of heavy cream–no thicker.

Heat two10-inch or larger crepe pans or skillets (I use two cast-iron griddles), if you have two cooks, over medium-high heat. Coat the pans with a small amount of melted butter or oil, using a wad of paper towel to apply it.

Pour about 1/4-cup batter onto the hot pan, rotating the pan to distribute the batter evenly. Wait for the bubbles to appear and the underside to turn golden brown–about one minute. Flip the galette and cook about 30 seconds longer. Transfer the galette to a plate (or turn it over to a second cook for filling), and continue to cook the rest of the batter to same way. Wipe more butter or oil onto the pan as needed.

After the initial cooking, a galette is folded or rolled around fillings and fried again in butter. The Paris galettes were filled rather like an envelope: filling ingredients distributed over the middle section and the two sides folded in to cover the filling. Galettes may also be rolled up around the filling, as for sushi, and flattened slightly before frying.

Add some butter to a hot skillet or griddle (medium heat) and place as many galettes as will fit in a single, uncrowded layer. Cook until the first side is crisp, then flip and cook the second side. It takes a few minutes for each side, and as Lebovitz says, it’s worth the wait. Transfer the hot galettes to a cutting board, slice into one or two-inch pieces, and serve with chopped herbs, pomegranate molasses, and harissa.

Filling suggestions:
Fresh pork or chicken sausage and roasted red peppers
Roasted winter squash with pomegranate seeds and Gorgonzola
Sautéed kale with ham and feta cheese
Caramelized onions with oven-dried tomatoes and black olives

Gallette

 

Cooking for Friends/ Rick’s Fish Soup

“…Pearlescent black mussels, earthy gray-brown clams, and delicate pink shrimp all look beautiful floating in a fragrant broth redolent of the sea.” Cucina Rustica

Mussels

Who would not want to make this soup?

“Cooking for friends” is one of the best ingredients for any recipe. It’s right up there with love and joy, and a good way to insure plenty of the latter ingredients. While we were in Paris, Rick’s dear friends Marie and Jean-Charles came to visit, and Rick embarked upon a cooking odyssey. It was an all-day event that involved more than one trip to the market, improvisation, several bottles of wine, and much love and joy–especially on the part of  who got to eat Rick’s fish soup.

Vegetables at Paris Market

Luckily for Rick, the outdoor market fell on the day of his extravaganza. The Bastille Market is renowned even among the Paris markets, and stretches from the neighborhood of our apartment all the way to the Bastille, half a mile away. The fishmongers’ stalls are extraordinary, with fish so fresh they seem to have just jumped off the boat. Six-foot eels wind their way around the piles of seafood, and giant fish with giant eyeballs stare at you from their beds of ice. Rick went early and chose cod, snapper, scallops, and shrimp. He filled his shopping bag with onions, potatoes, red and green peppers, tomatoes, and a bundle of fresh thyme and set off for the kitchen.

Paris Fish Market

Rick’s cooking brought to mind the musings of Michael Pollan in his book about making food, titled Cooked. He wrote, “Time is the missing ingredient in our recipes–and in our lives.” Rick didn’t need to spend all day cooking to make this stew, but he did. There is something very wonderful about spending a day in the kitchen cooking for friends and infusing ingredients with love and joy. Another thought from Pollan: “Great cooking is all about the three “P’s”: patience, presence, and practice.” Rick used all three.

Rick’s Fish Soup

Fish Soup

Rick’s fish soup was very much in the spirit of using the catch of the day. He chose ingredients that called to him at the market, took them home, and turned them into a wonderful stew. Fish stew lends itself to a gathering of friends because it is best made in a wide, generous pot that allows the precious seafood to poach gently in the broth at the very end of cooking. Rick made enough for six, well-satisfied people.

Ingredients: 1/4 cup olive oil, 1 finely chopped yellow onion, 1 tsp anchovy paste or 3 or 4 anchovy fillets, 2 tsp chopped fresh thyme leaves (added in stages), 2 cloves minced garlic, 1 diced red bell pepper, 1 diced green bell pepper, 1 1/2 cups diced smooth-skinned potato, 1 1/2 to 2 cups dry white wine (Rick used Muscadet), 2 diced medium tomatoes (or 1cup canned plum tomatoes with juice), 1 lb. cod fillet (Rick chooses the thicker “Captain’s cut”), 1 lb. snapper fillet, 1/2 lb. scallops, 1/2 lb.peeled shrimp, 1 cup heavy cream, 4 Tbs chopped flat-leaf parsley, sea salt and freshly ground black pepper, pimente d’espelette or red chile flakes (or, if you are lucky enough to have some, smoky Hungarian paprika)

Warm the olive oil in a large stockpot or Dutch oven. Stir in the onion and sauté 8 to 10 minutes, until soft and translucent. Add the anchovy paste or chopped anchovy fillets (here’s where Rick had to use a handful chopped oil-cured black olives to get the briny flavor he wanted because in the Paris markets, anchovy paste n’existe pas) and stir until they meld with the onions. Stir in 1 tsp thyme leaves and the garlic; continue cooking 1 to 2 minutes. Add the peppers and potato; stir a few minutes longer and add the wine. Let the wine simmer for a few minutes and add the tomatoes and their juice. Add water or broth if more liquid is needed to barely cover the vegetables. Cook at a low, steady simmer for 20 to 30 minutes, or until the vegetables are tender. Season with salt, freshly ground black pepper, and the rest of the thyme. Cover and reduce the heat to very low. You can turn off the heat and go out to the market for more wine at this point, if you like.

Bring the soup back to a simmer and add the scallops and shrimp (being denser, they take slightly longer to cook, so are added first). Cover and cook 3 minutes. Cut the fish into 1-inch cubes or slices and season lightly with sea salt. Carefully add the fish pieces without stirring. Cover and cook about 3 minutes more. Stir in the cream and a pinch or two pimente d’espelette or smoky Spanish or Hungarian paprika.ungarian paprikapppap Sprinkle the soup with parsley and serve with a loaf or two of crusty bread and a few bottles of cherished wine.

More Fish Soup

More Fish Soup

Rick’s masterpiece inspired me to make a fish stew to share with friends when we returned home. The origin of fish soups from Italian brodetto to French bouillabaisse lies in the answer to the question, “What do I do with all the little fish left in the net after I’ve sold all the big fish?” Traditional recipes call for fish stock made with fish heads and bones, as well as a dozen or more varieties of fish and shellfish for the stew, all contributing to the many-layered flavor of the finished soup. Unshelled shrimp, mussels, and clams and very small whole fish make the most flavorful broth.

Alas, most of us don’t live in fishing villages and have a much more limited choice of fish. But, after sampling Rick’s wonderful soup, I knew I didn’t need an ocean of fish to make a tasty stew. I went fishing at Trader Joe’s and Whole Foods; then I went fishing for recipes to match my catch. I turned to a recipe from John Ash, originally printed in Fine Cooking magazine, for turning chicken stock into a flavorful broth using shrimp shells. The stock is used to make broth for his version of Cioppino, a San Francisco-style fish soup.

Faux Fish Stock

Fish Stock

Ingredients: 1 lb. large shrimp, 6 cups homemade or low salt canned chicken broth

Peel the shrimp, reserving the shells. Refrigerate the shelled shrimp to add to the soup later. Simmer the shells in chicken broth for 5 to 10 minutes, covered. Strain and refrigerate or freeze until ready to use.

I was able to test this recipe using trout heads from the giant trout lurking in our pond, known as “Troutzilla”. I simmered trout heads with chopped onion, carrot, celery and garlic in homemade chicken broth for about 15 minutes. Then I threw in a handful of dried bonito flakes for extra umami and let the broth steep another 5 minutes before straining.

Celebration Fish Stew

Fish at the Market

I adapted two recipes for my celebration fish stew dinner party. I knew the fish would need the help of Ash’s brightly flavored Cioppino broth and I also liked the looks of a Tunisian fish soup in Ottolenghi’s cookbook, Jerusalem, which would let me use my beautiful fennel bulbs and preserved lemon. Ginny and Danny brought fresh Carolina shrimp to provide “redolence of the sea.”

Cioppino Broth: 1/4 cup olive oil, 3 cups coarsely chopped yellow onion, 2/3 cup coarsely chopped celery or fennel, 1 cup coarsely chopped carrot, 3 Tbs chopped garlic, 3 cups canned tomatoes with juices, 2 1/2 cups dry red or white wine (Ash uses Zinfandel, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese…I used Pinot Grigio), 6 cups faux fish stock, 3 large bay leaves, 3 sprigs fresh thyme, 2 tsp. crushed fennel seeds, 1/2 tsp red chile flakes, Kosher or sea salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste

In the olive oil in an 8-quart or larger pot over medium heat. Add the onion, carrot, celery or fennel, and garlic. Cook, stirring occasionally, until the vegetables are lightly browned, about 15 to 20 minutes. Add the tomatoes and their juices, wine, shellfish stock, bay leaves, thyme, fennel seeds, chile flakes, 1 tsp salt and 1/2 tsp cracked black pepper. Bring the liquid to a boil, then reduce the heat and maintain a low simmer for about 20 to 30 minutes.

Strain the broth, pressing the solids to extract all the liquid. Discard the solids and return the broth to the pot. Boil until reduced to 8 cups. Taste and adjust the seasonings. This broth may be made ahead of time and refrigerated or frozen.

The Stew: 2 Tbs olive oil, 4 thinly sliced garlic cloves. 1 large waxy potato (6 to 8 oz), 2 medium fennel bulbs (about 12 oz), 1/2 preserved lemon, 1 Tbs sweet paprika, 2 cups diced tomatoes, 1 lb scrubbed clams*, 1 lb scrubbed mussels*, 2 1/2 lbs fillets of firm-fleshed white fish–halibut, flounder, sea bass, monkfish, etc, 1 lb peeled shrimp, 1/4 cup chopped flat-leaf parsley leaves, 2 tsp chopped fresh tarragon

*Use whatever fresh seafood is available.

Note: Adding more vegetables is optional. You can and go straight to cooking the seafood in the prepared broth, if you like. Cut the potato into 2/3-inch cubes. Trim the fennel bulbs and cut into very thin wedges. Warm the olive oil in a wide sauté pan or large Dutch oven over medium heat. Stir in the garlic and cook 1 minute. Add the potato, fennel, and chopped preserved lemon and cook 4 or 5 minutes. Add the strained broth, bring to a simmer, then cover and cook over low heat 12 to 15 minutes, until the vegetables are barely tender. Add the tomatoes and paprika and simmer 4 to 5 minutes more.

Now cook the seafood. Add the scrubbed clams to the simmering broth and cook until they open, 3 to 5 minutes. Add the mussels and cook another 2 to 3 minutes. When all the shellfish have opened, add the fish and shrimp, trying not to break the pieces. Cover, and cook 3 to 5 minutes, until barely cooked through. The fish will continue to cook in the hot broth until served. Garnish with chopped parsley and tarragon. Serve with couscous or crusty bread o sop up the broth.

Vegetables at Market

David’s Feast

French Cheese and Tomatos

On our way back north to Paris, we took a detour into a more austere and less populated region of France–a rocky land of forest, hilly pastures for beef herds, windy and narrow roads, and gray granite barns and houses. Our friends, David and Carrie, have referred to this region of central France as the “Ozarks of France,” and it is a difficult enough place to make a living that many of the farmers moved away and sold their old homes to people like David and Carrie. The thick-walled stone house has been renovated to make a comfortable country retreat where they tend a glorious summer garden and welcome visitors with warm hospitality. They shared with us all the best things–ripe plums picked from the community trees, mushrooms gathered in the fields, ancient stone ruins shrouded in mist, and a well-stocked wine cellar beneath the house. As if that were not enough, David cooked a feast! And he even let me help a little.

Cooking with the French

David cooks the way many good cooks in France cook–deeply connected to local and seasonal flavors and inspired by market or garden produce that looks, smells, and feels most alive. David shopped at the weekly farmers’ market in a nearby village and Carrie gathered beautiful fresh herbs and vegetables from the garden. The cool, rainy fall weather was perfect for a day of cuisine maison, or slow home cooking. Of course, we opened a bottle of good wine to sip with the meal.

 Goat Cheese with Honey

Goat Cheese Appetizers

For an aperatif, Carrie warmed small rounds of goat cheese and drizzled a little local honey on top. Cuisine du terroir of elegant simplicity.

Roast Leg of Lamb with Vegetable Gratin

Roast Leg of Lamb

David likes to cook from Bistro Cooking by Patricia Wells. This is based on one of her recipes.

Ingredients: 3 medium potatoes (2 lbs.), 3 medium or 2 large yellow onions, 5 medium tomatoes, 8 garlic cloves, 4 to 5 Tbs olive oil, several sprigs fresh thyme (1 Tbs. chopped leaves), 2 1/2 tsp sea salt, 1 tsp freshly ground black pepper, 2/3 cup dry white wine, 5 1/2 to 6-pound leg of lamb

Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Rub the bottom of a large roasting pan or gratin dish with a split garlic clove.

Slice the potatoes, onions, and tomatoes about 1/4-inch thick. Thinly slice the peeled garlic cloves. Roughly chop the thyme leaves. Arrange the potatoes in a single layer in the bottom of the pan. Overlap slightly if necessary. Season with salt, pepper and thyme. Repeat with layers of onion followed by tomatoes. Pour on the wine and drizzle with olive oil.

Trim most of the fat from the leg of lamb, leaving only a thin layer. Season the lamb with salt and pepper. Place a rack over the pan of vegetables and set the leg of lamb, fat side up, on the rack. Roast for 1 hour and 15 minutes for rare lamb, longer if you prefer more well-cooked meat. Let the lamb sit 15 minutes before carving into thin slices. Arrange the lamb slices on a platter and serve the vegetable gratin from the pan.

Chard Tart

Chard Tart

This was really, really good. Leftovers make a great breakfast.

The dough: 2 cups unbleached all-purpose flour, 1/2 cup olive oil, 1/2-tsp salt, 1/2 cup water, 1/2 cup pine nuts

Place all the ingredients in a mixing bowl and stir them together until the dough comes together in a ball. Divide the dough into 2 balls, wrap in plastic, and set aside.

Filling: 1 1/2 lbs. chard leaves (no stems), 1 cup golden raisins, 2 beaten eggs, salt

Wash and dry the chard leaves. Chop them into narrow strips and place them in a large bowl. Season lightly with salt and stir in the beaten eggs. Add the raisins and mix well.

Roll out one ball of dough and press it into a tart pan. Spread the filling over the dough. Roll out the second ball of dough and cover the filling. Pinch the edges together.

Bake in a pre-heated 400 degree F oven for about 40 minutes, until golden brown.

Roasted Beet Salad

Another great way to eat those roasted beets from the street market…a lovely fall or winter salad and a great pairing of walnuts and beets. Roasted or boiled, the beets are delicious.

Ingredients: 4 medium beets, 3 shallots, 1/4 cup coarsely chopped fresh dill, 2/3 cup coarsely chopped toasted walnuts, 1 Tbs walnut oil, 4 Tbs cider vinegar, 1/4 tsp red chile flakes, salt and freshly ground black pepper, 1 1/2 cups arugula leaves

To roast the beets, heat the oven to 425 degrees F. Wrap the beets in aluminum foil and roast for 1 hour or more, depending on size. Beets are done when they can be pierced easily with a thin knife blade. Cool and peel. While still warm, slice the beets into wedges, place them in a bowl, and drizzle with vinegar. Season with salt and freshly ground black pepper.

Finely chop the shallots and add them to the bowl. Add the dill, chile flakes, and walnut oil and toss to mix well. Put the arugula leaves on a platter, Scoop the beets over them, and distribute the toasted walnuts on top.

Market Day Cooking–Food, Glorious Food!

French Market

One of the true joys of traveling in France is shopping at the outdoor markets. Our guidebook called them “a barrage of color, sight, and sound.”The abundance and beauty of the produce is astounding–for me, it is Christmas Day. Stalls overflow with vegetables and fruits, nuts and olives, mushrooms and truffles, dried and fresh herbs and spices, cheeses, breads, sausages and cured meats, fish, chickens and ducks, and fresh meat. And then there’s the rotisserie chickens and grilled sausages… Lebanese specialties such as felafel, flatbreads with za’atar, and tabouleh…giant pans of paella, coq au vin…or trays of fresh pasta and ravioli. You can snack on galettes or pommes frites, or perhaps a bowl of onion soup. Oh, and take home roasted beets–what a great idea! One of our favorite markets included a van full of country bread, driven straight from the wood-fired bake oven located on a nearby farm.

Italian Market Vegetables

French Market Sausages

These are traveling markets. In rural France, the small towns host street markets on different days of the week, and various venders make a circuit to augment the more local and seasonal fare. The fall specialties include an array of wild mushrooms, fresh walnuts, chestnuts, and hazelnuts, freshly pressed nut oils, juicy dried prunes, figs and pears, and the most gorgeous garlic I have ever seen. Southwest France is a land of small, traditional, family farms that is overflowing with the good things of the earth–food that is flavored with a benevolent climate, rich soil, and careful tending. This is the home of cuisine du terroir, country cooking seasoned with the flavor of the land.

Mushrooms At A French Market

Our home away from home in Dordogne was in a beautifully converted ancient stone barn, looking out over softly rolling hills toward the river valley and surrounded by fields of just-harvested tobacco, ripening walnut orchards, pasture, and forests of oak and chestnut trees. It felt like home, complete with a rusting vehicle in the field across the way. Each day we foraged at the markets and brought the loot home to our tiny kitchen. We emptied our shopping bags like Christmas stockings, and reveled in the riches. It was truly hard to know what to cook first. When the ingredients are so good, why get fancy? Simple is best.

French Rental Home

Roast Fingerling Potatoes

The markets were full of freshly dug potatoes, full of flavor and smelling of the earth. Fingerlings or other small, smooth-skinned yellow potatoes are first choice. Look for Red Gold, Yukon Gold, German Butterball, French Fingerling, or Russian Banana. They are best when not long out of the ground.

Wash the potatoes and dry them well. Cut fingerlings in half and larger potatoes into quarters so that the pieces are of equal size. Place the potatoes on a roasting pan that is large enough to hold them all in one layer. Drizzle them with a flavorful olive oil (2 Tbs per pound of potatoes) and toss well. Sprinkle on a generous 1/4-teaspoon sea salt and 1/2- tsp chopped fresh rosemary per pound.

Roast the potatoes in the hot oven for 50 to 60 minutes, rotating the pan and flipping the potatoes every 10 to 15 minutes so that all sides turn a toasty brown. They are done when the outside is crisp and the inside tender.

Signature Salad

On our very first day in France we stopped at a small bistro outside the railroad station where I got to eat what turned out to be the signature salad of southwest France. It was sublime.

Fill a bowl with bite-size pieces of red and green loose leaf lettuce (the most common variety we saw in the region was soft, frilly head of green-shading-to-red leaves) and curly endive. Dress the greens with a vinaigrette made with 4 Tbs mild olive oil, 2 Tbs walnut oil, and 2 Tbs wine or cider vinegar. Season with sea salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste.

Top the salad with toasted walnuts and slices of toasted baguette with rounds of goat cheese, placed under the broiler to melt the cheese.

Oven-Baked Ratatouille

Market Veggies in France

It still felt like summer in the south of France in late September, and the deep purple eggplant, vibrant red and orange peppers, ruby-red onions, vine-ripe tomatoes, and shiny green zucchini were irresistible. Add some fat lavender-striped garlic cloves and a bundle of fresh thyme…it’s a lovely way to bake a summer garden. We had this dish as a filling for lasagne at the little railroad station bistro.

Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F.

Ingredients: 1 large red onion, 1 beautiful shiny-skinned eggplant –12 to 16 oz.(or 2 smaller ones), 1 or 2 red or orange sweet peppers, 2 slender zucchini, 2 medium tomatoes (or 5 or 6 canned plum tomatoes), 3 to 4 tsp. chopped fresh thyme leaves, 1 tsp. sea salt or Kosher salt, 1/4 tsp. freshly ground black pepper, 3 fat garlic cloves, 3 to 4 Tbs fruity olive oil

Extras: fresh mint leaves, pitted green olives, splash of sherry vinegar

Slice the onion from top to bottom into thin wedges. Cut the eggplant into 3/4-inch cubes. Cut the peppers into 1/2-inch strips, then each strip into 3 or 4 pieces, slice the zucchini into 1/4-inch rounds. Slice the tomatoes 1/4-inch thick. Thinly slice the garlic.

Combine the onion, eggplant, peppers, zucchini, and garlic in a large roasting pan. Toss to mix. Sprinkle with thyme, salt, and pepper. Drizzle with olive oil and toss again. Distribute the tomato slices over the top (or squeeze the canned tomatoes with your hand over the other vegetables.

Bake for 40 to 60 minutes, stirring once or twice, until the vegetables are tender and beginning to brown on the edges. Serve warm or at room temperature, sprinkled with fresh mint leaves and chopped green olives. A splash of sherry or balsamic vinegar is nice.

Smoky Grilled Fish and Beet Salsa

Our farmhouse in Dordogne had a patio and outdoor grill where the barnyard used to be. We brought home fresh fish from the market, and Joe fired up the grill with a bag of grapevine trimmings. The fire turned out to be quite smoky, rather alarming to our host, but the fish was delicious and greatly enhanced by a beet-orange salsa borrowed from a recipe by Yotam Ottalenghi. It’s surprising how many ways you can find to eat beets when they come ready-roasted from the market! The salsa was spiced with piment d’Espelette, a dried pepper from the Basque region. It is medium spicy and very flavorful–somewhat like Aleppo pepper, only brighter and fruitier.

Build a big, smoky fire and grill skin-on fish, whole or fillets, until cooked through–3 to 4 minutes per side. If you don’t like smoke, use a normal grill fire. While someone else deals with the fire, make the salsa.

Ingredients: 1 roasted or boiled medium-large red or yellow beet, 1 medium orange, 1 small red onion, 1/4 cup chopped flat-leaf parsley, 1/4 cup chopped kalamata olives, juice of 1 small lemon, 1/2 tsp toasted and crushed coriander seeds, 3/4 tsp toasted and crushed cumin seeds, 1/2 tsp red chile flakes, salt, 1 Tbs walnut oil, sea salt or kosher salt, vinegar

Peel and cut the beet into 1/4-inch dice. Peel the orange and remove all pith and tough membranes from the segments. Chop into small pieces. Finely chop the onion. Combine the beet, orange, onion, olives and parsley in a mixing bowl. Whisk together the spices, lemon juice, and walnut oil and pour over the mixture in the bowl. Mix well and season with salt to taste. Add some toasted walnuts and a splash of cider or sherry vinegar, if needed, just before serving. This salsa is brilliant on top of a winter salad of spinach or spicy greens.

***

For dessert, all I had to do was walk down the lane to a long-empty chateau and pick fresh figs from the tree that hung out over the bank. Not so easy, but well worth the sun-ripened figs, bursting with juice.

In Paris, there are at least 100 street markets that set up in the various neighborhoods on specified days of the week. The market near our apartment stretched for almost a half mile along a narrow greenway between two avenues. It was the Louvre of street markets, and I gazed for hours at frilly green and red lettuce, stacks of wrinkled, moldy-rind cheeses, seductive radishes, and fish so fresh they seem to have just jumped out of the water